Balancing

A balance between generation and consumption is essential at all times to guarantee a stable grid frequency. Deviations from this balance, which could for example be caused by power plant failures or unexpected changes of load, must permanently be compensated through the activation of appropriate reserves from generation or load units.. In its role as Transmission System Operator (TSO), APG is responsible for the procurement and activation of the required reserve capacity in the APG LFC area. (An LFC area is a grid area in which the balance between generation and consumption is coordinated by a single entity – the TSO.)

Control reserve market

Since 2012, all components of control reserve required in the APG LFC area have been procured by APG by means of regular tenders. Each market participant, who meets specific technical and contractual conditions, can participate in these tenders.

For technical and economic reasons, a distinction is made between three types of control reserves. Further details relating to the respective tenders can be found on the individual pages (direct links in the right-hand column). In the event of further queries, please use the corresponding contact (also listed in the right-hand column).

Frequency Containment Reserve (FCR)

Frequency Containment Reserve is a solidary reserve in Continental Europa. It is needed to automatically compensate an imbalance between generation and consumption within a few seconds through corresponding activation (control). FCR works like a common safety net and stabilises the frequency of Continental Europe within compatible limits. FCR power in the amount of +/-3000 MW is continuously available in the grid of Continental Europe. Each LFC Area contributes to this common reserve based on an agreed yearly distribution key. The volume of FCR that must be provided by the APG LFC area lies at approximately +/-70 MW. The costs for keeping FCR available continuously a born by all generators above 5 MW.

Automatic Frequency Restoration Reserve (aFRR)

The automatic Frequency Restoration Reserve is an individual automatically activated reserve, which has to be hold ready by each TSO for its LFC area. In case of an imbalance aFRR follows the activation of the common FCR, but is only activated in the LFC area where the imbalance originates. As a result, FCR is relieved and is again available to compensate further imbalances in Continental Europe.. Whereas FCR has to be activated within seconds, activation of aFRR must be completed after 5 minutes (full activation time requirement in the LFC area APG).

The required volume of aFRR depends on the maximum load of the LFC area and the maximum expectable imbalance in the LFC area which is usually the biggest generator.. When aFRR is too little to compensate the outage of the biggest generator in the LFC area additional manual FRR (see below) has to be provided. This is the case in the LFC area APG.

Manual Frequency Restoration Reserve (MFRR)

Manual Frequency Restoration Reserve is on one hand needed to avoid longer lasting activation of aFRR (several consecutive quarters of an hour), because aFRR would be blocked for other additional imbalances. On the other hand, it is essential for the LFC area APG to compensate larger imbalances – e.g. outages of large generators, since aFRR is too little to cover such imbalances. The combined aFRR+mFRR has to be able to compensate expectable imbalances within 15 minutes.

List of prequalified control energy participants

Below you can find a list of the currently prequalified Balance Service Providers (BSP) per reserve type.

Participants PCP SCP TCP
A1 Telekom Austria AG   X X
Energie AG Oberösterreich Kraftwerke GmbH X X
EVN AG X X X
GEN-I Vienna GmbH     X
KELAG-Kärntner Elektrizitäts-Aktiengesellschaft X X X
Lechwerke AG   X X
Linz Strom GmbH X
Next Kraftwerke GmbH   X X
Norske Skog Bruck GmbH*
ÖBB-Infrastruktur AG   X X
TIWAG-Tiroler Wasserkraft AG X X X
Salzburg AG für Energie, Verkehr und Telekommunikation X X X
VERBUND Energy4Business GmbH X X X
VERBUND Energy4Flex GmbH X X X
illwerke vkw AG   X X
Wien Energie GmbH X X

*) prefers no publication in regard to control energy type

Legal framework for balancing

  • The Electricity Industry and Organisation Act [Elektrizitätswirtschafts- und -organisationsgesetz (ElWOG)]
  • Technical and Organisational Rules for System Operators and Users (TOR)
  • ENTSO-E Synchronous Area Framework Agreement, Policy on LFCR

Links to the legal framework are provided under Legal Matters.